来源：新航道 浏览：0 发布日期：2022-06-16 11:45
Adapted from former US President Jimmy Carter, "Foreword to Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Seasons of Life and Land, A Photographic Journey" by Subhankar Banerjee. 2003 by Subhankar Banerjee.
The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge stands alone as America's last truly great wilderness. This magnificent area is as vast as it is wild, from the windswept coastal plain where polar bears and caribou give birth to the towering Brooks Range where Dall sheep cling to cliffs and wolves howl in the midnight sun.
More than a decade ago, [my wife] Rosalynn and I had the fortunate opportunity to camp and hike in these regions of the Arctic Refuge. During bright July days, we walked along ancient caribou trails and studied the brilliant mosaic of wildflowers, mosses, and lichens that hugged the tundra. There was a timeless quality about this great land. As the never-setting sun circled above the horizon, we watched muskox, those shaggy survivors of the Ice Age, lumber along braided rivers that meander toward the Beaufort Sea.
One of the most unforgettable and humbling experiences of our lives occurred on the coastal plain. We had hoped to see caribou during our trip, but to our amazement, we witnessed the migration of tens of thousands of caribou with their newborn calves. In a matter of a few minutes, the sweep of tundra before us became flooded with life, with the sounds of grunting animals and clicking hooves filling the air. The dramatic procession of the Porcupine caribou herd was a once-in-a-lifetime wildlife spectacle. We understand firsthand why some have described this special birthplace as "America's Serengeti".
Standing on the coastal plain, I was saddened to think of the tragedy that might occur if this great wilderness was consumed by a web of roads and pipelines, drilling rigs and industrial facilities. Such proposed developments would forever destroy the wilderness character of America's only Arctic Refuge and disturb countless numbers of animals that depend on this northernmost terrestrial ecosystem.
The extraordinary wilderness and wildlife values of the Arctic Refuge have long been recognized by both Republican and Democratic presidents. In 1960, President Dwight D. Eisenhower established the original 8.9 million-acre Arctic National Wildlife Range to preserve its unique wildlife, wilderness, and recreational values. Twenty years later, I signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, monumental legislation that safeguarded more than 100 million acres of national parks, refuges, and forests in Alaska. This law specifically created the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, doubled the size of the former range, and restricted development in areas that are clearly incompatible with oil exploration.
Since I left office, there have been repeated proposals to open the Arctic Refuge coastal plain to oil drilling. Those attempts have failed because of tremendous opposition by the American people, including the Gwich'in Athabascan Indians of Alaska and Canada, indigenous people whose culture has depended on the Porcupine caribou herd for thousands of years. Having visited many aboriginal peoples around the world, I can empathize with the Gwich'ins' struggle to safeguard one of their precious human rights.
We must look beyond the alleged benefits of a short-term economic gain and focus on what is really at stake. At best, the Arctic Refuge might provide 1 to 2 percent of the oil our country consumes each day. We can easily conserve more than that amount by driving more fuel-efficient vehicles. Instead of tearing open the heart of our greatest refuge, we should use our resources more wisely.
There are few places on earth as wild and free as the Arctic Refuge. It is a symbol of our national heritage, a remnant of frontier America that our first settlers once called wilderness. Little of that precious wilderness remains.
It will be a grand triumph for America if we can preserve the Arctic Refuge in its pure, untrammeled state. To leave this extraordinary land alone would be the greatest gift we could pass on to future generations.
Write an essay in which you explain how Jimmy Carter builds an argument to persuade his audience that the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge should not be developed for industry.
注释：北极国家野生动物保护区位于美国阿拉斯加州东北部的阿拉斯加北坡区，成立于1960年，占地78050平方千米，是美国最 大的国家野生动物保护区，旨在保护北极地区得天独厚的野生环境、独 一 无 二的野生动植物、面积广阔的荒地和令人向往的娱乐价值。
In the foreword to Subhankar Banerjee's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Seasons of Life and Land, A Photographic Journey, former US President Jimmy Carter argues in favor of protecting the Arctic Refuge from industrial development proposals. The author effectively builds his argument by using a personal anecdote, voice of authority, statistical evidence.
Carter begins the essay with a glorification of the Arctic Refuge. He recounts a personal anecdote that effectively conveys the sense of wonder he and his wife felt while hiking through the vast wilderness. The vivid portrayal of the sights and sounds of this magnificent setting, where the "the never-setting sun" and "ancient caribou trails" combine to provide a "timeless quality," creates for the readers a particularly positive association between beauty and the wild and untampered nature of the Refuge. In addition, Carter succeeds in also describing an encounter with a dramatic migration of thousands of caribou and their newborn calves that made his trip truly unique and memorable. His identification of many of the Refuge's inhabitants as species native to North America stresses the fact that this "America's Serengeti" deserves national attention. This anecdote achieves in leading the readers through an emotional journey: from an admiration of natural beauty to a more active sense of patriotism and duty. Any reader experiencing these feelings would be swayed to side with Carter in defense of preserving nature.
Carter then makes reference to his past political involvement in environmental legislations. As former President of the United States, he specifically signed into law an Act that established the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. This direct political involvement qualifies him as someone responsible for delivering meaningful change during his presidency and makes a powerful ethical appeal to the readers. In addition, Carter makes it clear that his call to action to other Americans in preserving the Arctic Refuge does not simply stem from the nostalgia of a one-time hike. Instead, it stems from his long political record where he pioneered the preservation efforts for the Arctic Refuge. His argument for environmental protection benefits directly from his unique background as someone who can engage in the discourse about the Arctic Refuge with authority and is personally invested in how this particular landmark thrives in the future.
Towards the end of the essay, the author uses statistics and facts to outline clear reasons against expanding a pipeline. He points out how "at best, the Arctic Refuge might provide 1 to 2 percent of the oil our country consumes every day." Carter entrusts his readers to recognize that the reward for industry is simply too insignificant to justify any effort in ravaging a wild sanctuary. Additionally, he offers a simple solution for easily making up this energy difference by all of us making more of an effort to conserve fuel when we drive. Carter effectively strengthens his argument when he appeals to logic of the readers and presents a straightforward cost and benefit analysis. Any support in favor of short-term economic gain is rendered defunct when no reader would logically choose to "use our resources more wisely" over "tearing open the heart of our greatest refuge."
Urging Americans not to allow the Arctic Refuge be developed for industry, Carter writes that we must instead preserve it as a symbol of our national heritage. He built this argument by appealing to the readers' pathos, logos, and ethos.
Eg. Carter begins the essay with a glorification of the Arctic Refuge. He recounts a personal anecdote that effectively conveys the sense of wonder he and his wife felt while hiking through the vast wilderness. The vivid portrayal of the sights and sounds of this magnificent setting, where the "the never-setting sun" and "ancient caribou trails" combine to provide a "timeless quality," creates for the readers a particularly positive association between beauty and the wild and untampered nature of the Refuge.
Eg. The vivid portrayal of the sights and sounds of this magnificent setting, where the "the never-setting sun" and "ancient caribou trails" combine to provide a "timeless quality," creates for the readers a particularly positive association between beauty and the wild and untampered nature of the Refuge.