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SAT写作推荐:Arctic National Wildlife Refuge范文推荐及解析

来源:新航道 浏览:0 发布日期:2022-06-16 11:45

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Adapted from former US President Jimmy Carter, "Foreword to Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Seasons of Life and Land, A Photographic Journey" by Subhankar Banerjee. 2003 by Subhankar Banerjee.

The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge stands alone as America's last truly great wilderness. This magnificent area is as vast as it is wild, from the windswept coastal plain where polar bears and caribou give birth to the towering Brooks Range where Dall sheep cling to cliffs and wolves howl in the midnight sun.

More than a decade ago, [my wife] Rosalynn and I had the fortunate opportunity to camp and hike in these regions of the Arctic Refuge. During bright July days, we walked along ancient caribou trails and studied the brilliant mosaic of wildflowers, mosses, and lichens that hugged the tundra. There was a timeless quality about this great land. As the never-setting sun circled above the horizon, we watched muskox, those shaggy survivors of the Ice Age, lumber along braided rivers that meander toward the Beaufort Sea.

One of the most unforgettable and humbling experiences of our lives occurred on the coastal plain. We had hoped to see caribou during our trip, but to our amazement, we witnessed the migration of tens of thousands of caribou with their newborn calves. In a matter of a few minutes, the sweep of tundra before us became flooded with life, with the sounds of grunting animals and clicking hooves filling the air. The dramatic procession of the Porcupine caribou herd was a once-in-a-lifetime wildlife spectacle. We understand firsthand why some have described this special birthplace as "America's Serengeti".

SAT写作推荐:Arctic National Wildlife Refuge范文推荐及解析

Standing on the coastal plain, I was saddened to think of the tragedy that might occur if this great wilderness was consumed by a web of roads and pipelines, drilling rigs and industrial facilities. Such proposed developments would forever destroy the wilderness character of America's only Arctic Refuge and disturb countless numbers of animals that depend on this northernmost terrestrial ecosystem.

The extraordinary wilderness and wildlife values of the Arctic Refuge have long been recognized by both Republican and Democratic presidents. In 1960, President Dwight D. Eisenhower established the original 8.9 million-acre Arctic National Wildlife Range to preserve its unique wildlife, wilderness, and recreational values. Twenty years later, I signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, monumental legislation that safeguarded more than 100 million acres of national parks, refuges, and forests in Alaska. This law specifically created the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, doubled the size of the former range, and restricted development in areas that are clearly incompatible with oil exploration.

Since I left office, there have been repeated proposals to open the Arctic Refuge coastal plain to oil drilling. Those attempts have failed because of tremendous opposition by the American people, including the Gwich'in Athabascan Indians of Alaska and Canada, indigenous people whose culture has depended on the Porcupine caribou herd for thousands of years. Having visited many aboriginal peoples around the world, I can empathize with the Gwich'ins' struggle to safeguard one of their precious human rights.

We must look beyond the alleged benefits of a short-term economic gain and focus on what is really at stake. At best, the Arctic Refuge might provide 1 to 2 percent of the oil our country consumes each day. We can easily conserve more than that amount by driving more fuel-efficient vehicles. Instead of tearing open the heart of our greatest refuge, we should use our resources more wisely.

There are few places on earth as wild and free as the Arctic Refuge. It is a symbol of our national heritage, a remnant of frontier America that our first settlers once called wilderness. Little of that precious wilderness remains.

It will be a grand triumph for America if we can preserve the Arctic Refuge in its pure, untrammeled state. To leave this extraordinary land alone would be the greatest gift we could pass on to future generations.

Write an essay in which you explain how Jimmy Carter builds an argument to persuade his audience that the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge should not be developed for industry.

【材料点评】

这是一篇关于环境保护方面的文章,其主要内容是前美国总统卡特反对把北极国家野生动物保护区工业化的方案。

首先,从文章的第2~4段,我们可以看到作者以第 一人称叙述的一段个人经历,这段关于作者及其妻子在北极国家野生动物保护区游览时的所感所悟,是作者为了唤起读者共鸣而采用的论证策略。

其次,文章的第5段和第7段都运用了事实和数据,这种修辞策略可以让论证更有真实性和说服力。

最后,整篇文章的措辞都非常具有表现力,可以很好地达到引起读者情感共鸣的效果。

注释:北极国家野生动物保护区位于美国阿拉斯加州东北部的阿拉斯加北坡区,成立于1960年,占地78050平方千米,是美国最 大的国家野生动物保护区,旨在保护北极地区得天独厚的野生环境、独 一 无 二的野生动植物、面积广阔的荒地和令人向往的娱乐价值。

SAT写作推荐:Arctic National Wildlife Refuge范文推荐及解析

SAT写作范文参考

In the foreword to Subhankar Banerjee's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Seasons of Life and Land, A Photographic Journey, former US President Jimmy Carter argues in favor of protecting the Arctic Refuge from industrial development proposals. The author effectively builds his argument by using a personal anecdote, voice of authority, statistical evidence.

在Subhankar Banerjee的《北极国家野生动物保护区:生命和土地的四季——一次摄影之旅》的前言中,美国前总统吉米卡特反对了在北极保护区发展工业的提案。作者用个人轶事、权威言论和统计数据对他的观点进行了有力的论证。

 

Carter begins the essay with a glorification of the Arctic Refuge. He recounts a personal anecdote that effectively conveys the sense of wonder he and his wife felt while hiking through the vast wilderness. The vivid portrayal of the sights and sounds of this magnificent setting, where the "the never-setting sun" and "ancient caribou trails" combine to provide a "timeless quality," creates for the readers a particularly positive association between beauty and the wild and untampered nature of the Refuge. In addition, Carter succeeds in also describing an encounter with a dramatic migration of thousands of caribou and their newborn calves that made his trip truly unique and memorable. His identification of many of the Refuge's inhabitants as species native to North America stresses the fact that this "America's Serengeti" deserves national attention. This anecdote achieves in leading the readers through an emotional journey: from an admiration of natural beauty to a more active sense of patriotism and duty. Any reader experiencing these feelings would be swayed to side with Carter in defense of preserving nature.

首先,卡特以赞颂北极之美开始整篇文章,用一则轶事表现了他和夫人徒步穿越广袤荒原时的惊奇之情。文中,生动地描绘了这片宏伟土地的美景与声音,“不落的太阳”和“古代驯鹿的足迹”交织出一种“永恒的气质”,让读者感到保护区的美与保护区的野性之间存在一种特别的、积极的联系。此外,卡特还成功地描写了与数千只驯鹿和鹿崽军相遇的情景。这支浩浩荡荡的迁徙大军使他的旅行独特而难忘。卡特指出,很多在保护区栖居的动物都是北美本地的物种,凸显了保护区作为“美国的塞伦盖蒂平原”理应得到全国关注。这则轶事成功地带领读者完成了一段感情旅程:他们的情感由对自然美景的赞美上升到更强烈的爱国主义情感和责任感。任何有相同感受的读者都会被说服,进而加入卡特支持保护自然的行列。

 

Carter then makes reference to his past political involvement in environmental legislations. As former President of the United States, he specifically signed into law an Act that established the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. This direct political involvement qualifies him as someone responsible for delivering meaningful change during his presidency and makes a powerful ethical appeal to the readers. In addition, Carter makes it clear that his call to action to other Americans in preserving the Arctic Refuge does not simply stem from the nostalgia of a one-time hike. Instead, it stems from his long political record where he pioneered the preservation efforts for the Arctic Refuge. His argument for environmental protection benefits directly from his unique background as someone who can engage in the discourse about the Arctic Refuge with authority and is personally invested in how this particular landmark thrives in the future.

接着,卡特提到了他曾作为政治家参与的环保立法。作为美国前总统,他曾经专门签署了一个法案,而正是该法案使得北极国家野生动物保护区得以建立。这一直接的政治参与活动让他在任职期间树立了负责任的变革者的形象,并让读者产生了强烈的道德共鸣。此外,卡特还明确表明,他号召其他美国人一起维护北极保护区并非仅仅源于怀念那一次远足,而是在延续他长久以来的政治历程,是他开启了北极保护区的保护工作。他能作为权威人士参与有关北极保护区的对话,并且全力投入这个特殊地标的未来发展,这一独特的背景使得他对支持环保的呼吁更有分量。

 

Towards the end of the essay, the author uses statistics and facts to outline clear reasons against expanding a pipeline. He points out how "at best, the Arctic Refuge might provide 1 to 2 percent of the oil our country consumes every day." Carter entrusts his readers to recognize that the reward for industry is simply too insignificant to justify any effort in ravaging a wild sanctuary. Additionally, he offers a simple solution for easily making up this energy difference by all of us making more of an effort to conserve fuel when we drive. Carter effectively strengthens his argument when he appeals to logic of the readers and presents a straightforward cost and benefit analysis. Any support in favor of short-term economic gain is rendered defunct when no reader would logically choose to "use our resources more wisely" over "tearing open the heart of our greatest refuge."

文章最后,作者用数据及事实明确概述了其反对扩张输油管道的原因。他指出,“北极保护区每天最多能满足我国石油消费需求的1%至2%”。卡特期望读者意识到,产业上的收益微不足道,不能作为破坏野生动物保护区的借口。此外,他还给出了一个简单的解决方案来填补这一能源空缺,即所有人在驾车时更加注重节约能源。之后,卡特又进一步巩固了论点,他号召读者思考这其中的逻辑关系,还展示了一个简单明了的成本效益分析。如果读者不能在“理智利用资源”和“破坏我们最伟大的保护区”之间做出理智选择,那么任何支持短期经济收益的观点都会变得毫无意义。

 

Urging Americans not to allow the Arctic Refuge be developed for industry, Carter writes that we must instead preserve it as a symbol of our national heritage. He built this argument by appealing to the readers' pathos, logos, and ethos.

为了敦促美国人不要在北极保护区发展工业,卡特写到,我们必须把它作为我们的国家遗产加以保护。他通过诉诸于读者的感情共鸣、理性逻辑、权威可信度支持了自己的论点。

【范文解析】

阅读理解部分:

高分技巧:简洁精确的语言

用简洁精确的语言概括了这篇文章的主旨,概括时既不太泛泛也不是太冗长;

并未直接引用大段的原文,而是用自己的转述语言进行了解析;

能够清晰有条理地说明Carter是如何使用细节来支持主旨的。

分析能力部分:

高分技巧:充分解读主要论证特征

考生在文中认真全面地解释了Carter是如何通过使用个人轶事和数据事实等方法来展开议论的。例如,考生分析了Carter为何采用个人轶事这一手段进行开篇,并从功能性和对读者产生的效果两个方面,深度分析了Carter采用个人轶事这一方式开篇的作用。除此之外,文中还提到作者使用了Ethos这种修辞策略,并进行了深度分析。

Eg. Carter begins the essay with a glorification of the Arctic Refuge. He recounts a personal anecdote that effectively conveys the sense of wonder he and his wife felt while hiking through the vast wilderness. The vivid portrayal of the sights and sounds of this magnificent setting, where the "the never-setting sun" and "ancient caribou trails" combine to provide a "timeless quality," creates for the readers a particularly positive association between beauty and the wild and untampered nature of the Refuge.

写作能力部分:

高分技巧:结构连贯,用词准确

这篇文章有清晰明确的主旨,篇章的主体段紧密围绕着原文的三个主体部分进行结构展开。每一个段落内部的观点递进也清晰严谨。开头段和结尾段的写作技巧纯熟简明,很好地概括了原文的主旨及其全篇分析结构。全篇用词准确,措辞得当,句式变换多样,且使用了很多高 级的复杂句。

Eg. The vivid portrayal of the sights and sounds of this magnificent setting, where the "the never-setting sun" and "ancient caribou trails" combine to provide a "timeless quality," creates for the readers a particularly positive association between beauty and the wild and untampered nature of the Refuge.

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